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Лаборатория фитопаразитологии Центра паразитологии

Helminthological laboratory of the Center for Parasitology


The beginning of the study of plant parasites, in particular, phytonematodes in the Helminthological Laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Helminthological laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences (HELAN USSR), now the Center for Parasitology of the IEE RAS) should be considered April 1952, associated with the arrival of Professor A.A. Paramonova. Academician K.I. Skryabin, in the Laboratory headed by him, suggested A.A. Paramonov to deal with the problems of parasitism of roundworms on plants. By this time, the world scientific community had accumulated a lot of data on nematodes found on plants, but both the theoretical and applied significance of these facts had not yet been sufficiently analyzed. There were only prerequisites for the development of phytonematology as a science. This led to the need to begin large-scale faunistic studies of nematodes of agricultural and wild plants in various soil and climatic regions of the European and Asian parts of the former Soviet Union. To carry out this work, A.A. Paramonov attracted trainees and graduate students from all republics of the country.

In parallel with the study of the fauna and taxonomy of phytonematodes, studies of their ecology, biology of reproduction and nutrition, morphology and ontogenesis, the relationship with other members of the biocenosis (fungi, bacteria), the specificity of the diseases caused by them in host plants, the main goal of which was to find ways of plant therapy in phytohelminthiasis. The materials obtained as a result of these studies by the first phytonematologists and graduate students of GELAN from various regions of the country (Turlygina E.S., Myuge S.A., Krylov P.S., Baranovskaya I.A., Sudakova I.M., Damanskaya L. Yu.I.A., Pokrovskaya T.V. Eliavoy I.Ya., Shlepetene Yu.A., Balbaeva Z., Skuodite Z., Solovieva G.I., Eroshenko A.S. and others), served as the foundation for the development by A.A. Paramonov of the concept of phytohelminthology as an independent scientific discipline, which has unique objects of research, methodology, tasks and development paths. All this was reflected in the three-volume monograph by A.A. Paramonov "Fundamentals of phytohelminthology" (1962, 1964, 1970), which sets out the basic concepts of the new science, which have to this day not lost their significance. These are: ecological classification of soil nematodes based on the forms of their relationship with plants; classification of life cycles of phytohelminths, taking into account the degree of connection between various stages of their development, both with the plant and with the soil; mycotrophic hypothesis of the origin of phytoparasitism of tylenchids, based on the most ancient connections of nematodes with fungi; the idea of phytohelminthiases as biocenotic processes, in which, in addition to their pathogens (phytohelminths), saprobiotic nematodes, fungi, bacteria are also involved; the provision on the protective properties of plants from nematodes and their therapy for phytohelminthiasis and a number of others. The monograph was translated into English and was fundamental for the development of phytohelminthology not only in our country, but throughout the world.

In 1962, an independent unit was created - the Cabinet of Phytohelminthology, which in 1965 was transformed into the Sector of Phytohelminthology, headed by Professor A.A. Paramonov. After the death of A.A. Paramonov in 1970, the Sector of Phytohelminthology was headed by his student E.S. Turlygin, who remained its leader until 1986. During this period, research was carried out mainly in two directions: the study of the factors of the formation of faunistic complexes of phytonematodes in natural and agrocenoses and the

study of the relationship of phytoparasitic nematodes with host plants. The leading specialists in the first direction of research during this period were I.A. Baranovskaya, V.G. Gagarin, V.G. Gubina, L.V. Pavlyuk, T.M. Pokrovskaya, N.I. Sumenkova, L.V. Shubin. Methodologically, these works can be assessed as "experimental faunistics", since most of them were carried out in field experiments using various methods of statistical analysis. All these works are reflected in a number of monographs (three monographs in the series "Nematodes of Plants and Soils" dedicated to Neotilenchoids (Sumenkova, 1975), Afelenchoidids and Seinurids (Baranovskaya, 1981), the genus Ditylenhus (a group of authors, 1982)), as well as monographs on coniferous nematodes (Gubina, 1980) and on melodyynosis and control of root gall nematodes (Pokrovskaya, 1988). Many of these works have been translated into English and published abroad. The second direction, carried out by E.S. Turlygina, her dissertation candidate S.V. Zinovieva and N.A. Kostyuk envisaged mainly experimental studies of the ontogenesis of nematodes, the biology of their reproduction, and criteria for plant resistance to phytohelminths. The results of these works were reflected in N.A. Kostyuk’s dissertation, in which the problems of embryonic and postembryonic development of a wide range of phytonematode taxa are highlighted for the first time; in the monograph by E.S. Turlygina and V.N. Chizhov, 1991, devoted to the generalization of long-term studies of morphology, biology of reproduction and evolution of the reproductive system of plant nematodes, as well as in the works of S.V. Zinovyeva, who were aimed at developing at that time a completely new direction of phytohelminthology - plant immunity to phytohelminths. On the basis of these data, a hypothesis was developed for the formation of plant immunity to parasitic nematodes associated with the evolution of parasitism in phytonematodes. In the last 20 years, traditional taxonomic and ecological studies of phytonematodes, due to the introduction of biochemical and molecular methods, have reached the sub-species (population) and subpopulation levels. Such a direction of research as forest nematology (Doctor of Biological Sciences OA Kulinich) was developed. Faunistic studies of phytonematodes of various resource plant species have been resumed (Ph.D. V.N. Chizhov).

The study of the relationship between various phytoparasitic organisms that make up a single pathocomplex in the phytocenosis resulted in a separate direction - the cenology of phytoparasites (Ph.D. N.D. Romanenko). From 1989 to 1995 the head of the laboratory was a student of A.A. Paramonov, Doctor of Biological Sciences N. D. Romanenko, invited from the Institute of Horticulture of the Non-Black Earth Belt of the RSFSR, and since 1995, the director of the institute, corr. RAS M.D. Sonin. After M.D. Sonina retired, in 2001 phytoparasitological research at the institute was headed by a student E.S. Turlygina, Doctor of Biological Sciences S.V. Zinoviev. During these years, such research areas as the development of predictive models of the dynamics of the number, harmfulness and economic damage caused by populations of phytoparasitic nematodes (Doctor of Biological Sciences, K.A. Perevertin); creation of computer databases on phytonematodes were registered in the collection of the Laboratory. For the storage and convenient use of the accumulated information on phytonematodes, the following were created: an atlas - reference manuals on phytonematode taxonomy, which currently include data on 7 thousand species of soil-inhabiting and phytoparasitic nematodes belonging to 682 genera; a collection of permanent preparations of phytonematodes, which contains 3.5 thousand registered slides, including more than 10 thousand individuals identified to the species level (500 species, 144 of which are represented by type specimens) or to taxa of a higher rank (genus, family). The collection of preparations was registered in 1995 as the National

Collection, accepting standard specimens for storage. At present, the laboratory is headed by a phytopathologist - Ph.D. Pridannikov M.V. The faunistic direction continues to be developed by Ph.D. Tabolin S.B. and Khusainov R.V. Much attention is paid to the molecular taxonomy and phylogeny of phytoparasitic nematodes, several monographs and chapters of monographs have been published (Candidate of Biological Sciences S.A. Subbotin). Biochemical and molecular research in the field of plant immunity to nematodes is carried out by Ph.D. Zinovieva S.V. and Ph.D. Udalova Zh.V. Research is underway on the biology and ecology of quarantine nematode species (Dr. O. A. Kulinich, Dr. N. Kozyreva, Ph.D.). The collection of nematodes of the laboratory is supported by Ph.D. N. N. Butorina and Gennadieva T.M. The international relations of the laboratory were quite wide throughout its history. The laboratory staff had close contacts with specialists from Germany, Hungary, worked in Cuba, hosted graduate students and interns from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, India, Vietnam, Cuba, Jordan, Sierra Leone, from all the republics of the former Soviet Union. In recent years, these ties have begun to expand and strengthen mainly due to international grants with the UK, Belgium, Germany, China.


Fauna and taxonomy of phytoparasitic nematodes (Ph.D. Romanenko N.D., Ph.D. Chizhov V.N., Ph.D. Tabolin S.B., Khusainov R.V.)

Biology and ecology of virus-carrying nematodes (Doctor of Biological Sciences Romanenko N.D., Khusainov R.V.)

Biology and ecology of quarantine nematode species (D.Sc. Kulinich O.A., Ph.D. Kozyreva N.N.)

Molecular taxonomy and phylogeny of nematodes (Ph.D. Subbotin S.A.)

Biochemical and molecular aspects of the relationship between plants and parasitic nematodes (D.Sc. Zinovieva S.V., Ph.D. Udalova Zh.V.)

Plant protection from parasitic nematode species (Doctor of Biological Sciences Zinovieva S.V., Candidate of Biological Sciences Pridannikov M.V., Candidate of Biological Sciences Udalova Zh.V., Ph.D. Chizhov V.N.)

Systematics, morphology, biology of soil and entomonematodes Ph.D. (Chizhov V.N., Ph.D. Butorina N.N.)

Mathematical analysis of data, creation of prognostic models in phytohelminthology (Ph.D. Perevertin K.A.)

Replenishment and maintenance of the collection of nematodes, its inventory, making entries in the database (Ph.D. Butorina N.N., Gennadieva T.M.)



Subbotin, S.A., Toumi, F., Elekcioglu, I.H., Waeyenberge, L. & Tanha Maafi, Z. 2018. DNA barcoding, phylogeny and phylogeography of the cyst nematodes of the Avenae group from the genus Heterodera (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). Nematology 20:.

Palomares-Rius, J.E., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C., Archidona-Yuste, A., Tzortzakakis, E.A., Birmpilis, I.G., Vovlas, N., Subbotin, S.A., Castillo, P. 2018. Prevalence and molecular diversity of reniform nematodes of the genus Rotylenchulus (Nematoda: Rotylenchulinae) in the Mediterranean Basin. European Journal of Plant Pathology 150: 439-455.



Yushin, V.V., Subbotin, S.A., Claeys, M. & Bert, W. 2017. Spermatozoa in spermatheca of the plant-parasitic nematodes Paratylenchus hamatus sesu lato (Tylenchida, Paratylenchidae). Russian Journal of Nematology 25: 93-99.

Van den Berg, E., Tiedt, L.R. & Subbotin, S.A. 2017. Morphological and molecular characterisation of some Criconematidae (Nematoda, Tylenchida): Ogma decalineatus (Chitwood, 1957) Andrássy, 1979, Criconema silvum (van den Berg, 1984) Raski & Luc, 1985 and Neobakernema variabile (Raski & Golden, 1966) Ebsary, 1981 from South Africa and the USA. Russian Journal of Nematology 25: 85-92.

Smiley, R.W., Dababat, A.A., Iqbal, S., Jones, M.G.K., Tanha Maafi, Z., Peng, D., Subbotin, S.A. & Waeyenberge, L. 2017. Cereal cyst nematodes: a complex and destructive group of Heterodera species. Plant Disease 101: 1692-1720.

Subbotin, S.A., Akanwari, J., Nguyen, C.N., Cid del Prado Vera, I., Chitambar, J.J., Inserra, R.N. & Chizhov, V.N. 2017. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships of cystoid nematodes of the family Heteroderidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida). Nematology 19: 1065-1081.

Palomares-Rius, J.E., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C., Archidona-Yuste, A., Subbotin, S.A. & Castillo, P. 2017. The utility of mtDNA and rDNA for barcoding and phylogeny of plant-parasitic nematodes from Longidoridae (Nematoda, Enoplea). Scientific Reports 7, 10905.

Janssen, T., Karssen, G., Orlando, V., Subbotin, S.A. & Bert, W. 2017. Molecular characterization and species delimiting of plant-parasitic nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus from the Penetrans group (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 117: 30-48.

Peraza-Padilla, W., Archidona-Yuste, A., Ferris, H., Zamora-Araya, T., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C., Palomares-Rius, J.E., Subbotin, S.A. & Castillo, P. 2017. Molecular characterization of pseudomonodelphic dagger nematodes of the genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Costa Rica, with notes on Xiphinema setariae Tarjan, 1964. European Journal of Plant Pathology 148: 739-747.

Nikitin M.M., Statsyuk N.V., Frantsuzov P.A., Pridannikov M.V., Golikov A.G. (2017) Rapid and simple detection of two potato cyst nematode species by real-time multiplex PCR using preserved microarray-based test systems. Russian Journal of Nematology, 25(1):51–60.

Рысс А.Ю., Субботин С.А. 2017. Коэволюция стволовых нематод рода bursaphelenchus fuchs, 1937 с насекомыми-переносчиками и растениями-хозяевами. Журнал общей биологии 78(3): 32-61.

Лаврова В. В., С. В. Зиновьева, Ж. В. Удалова, Е. М. Матвеева. 2017. Экспрессия PR генов в тканях томатов при инвазии галловой нематодой Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid et White, 1919) Chitwood 1949. //ДАН Т.476 (4). С.466-469.

Шматко В.Ю., Таболин С.Б. Clarkus bulyshevae sp.n. (Nematoda, Mononchida) из почвы в Ростовской области. Зоологический журнал. 2017, том 96, № 11. С. 1342–1346



Orlando, V., Chitambar, J.J., Dong, K, Chizhov, V.N., Mollov, D., Bert, W. & Subbotin, S.A. 2016. Molecular and morphological characterisation of Xiphinema americanum group species (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from California, USA and other regions and co-evolution of bacteria from the genus Candidatus Xiphinematobacter with nematodes. Nematology 18: 1015-1043.

Арбузова Е.Н., Кулинич О.А., Мазурин Е.С., Рысс А.Ю., Козырева Н.И., Зиновьева С.В. 2016. Вилт хвойных пород и возможные причины его возникновения в России. Известия Академии наук. Серия Биологическая. № 4. С.  358–365. Переводная версия: Arbuzova E.N., Kulinich O.A., Mazurin E.S., Ryss A.Yu., Kozyreva N.I., Zinovieva S.V. 2016. Pine wilt disease and possible causes of its incidence in Russia. Biology Bulletin, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 300–306.

Лаврова В.В., Удалова Ж.В., Матвеева Е.М., Хасанов Ф.К., Зиновьева С.В. 2016. Экспрессия генов Mi-1 в растениях томата при заражении галловой нематодой и обработке салициловой кислотой. Доклады Академии Наук, Т.471, №3, С.358-361. Переводная версия: Lavrova V.V., Udalova Zh.V., Matveeva E.M., Khasanov F.K., Zinovieva S.V. 2016. Mi-1 gene expression of tomato plants infected with root-knot nematode and treatment with salicylic acid. Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 471, pp. 1–4.

Перевертин К.А., Сагитов А.О. 2016. От свекловичной нематоды к проблемам продовольственной безопасности. Российский паразитологический журнал, №1. С. 109-112.

Удалова Ж.В., Зиновьева С.В. 2016. Индуцированная устойчивость растений, как альтернатива химическим средствам защиты растений. Российский паразитологический журнал, №4. С.575-582.

Удалова Ж.В., Зиновьева С.В., Хасанова О.С. 2016. Влияние устойчивости томатов на морфо-физиологическое разнообразие и популяционные характеристики галловой нематоды Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid, White, 1919), Chitwood, 1949. Российский паразитологический журнал, №2, С. 245-252.


Ryss, A., Polyanina, K.S., Popovichev, B.G. & Subbotin, S.A. 2015. Description of Bursaphelenchus ulmophilus sp. n. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchinae) associated with Dutch elm disease of Ulmus glabra Huds. in the Russian North West. Nematology 15: 685-703.

Pridannikov M.V., Suprunova T.P., Shumilina D.V., Limantseva L. A., Skantar, A.M., Handoo Z.A., Chitwood D.J. 2015. Morphological and molecular observations on the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi from the Middle Volga River and South Ural Regions of Russia. Russian Journal of Nematology, 23 (2), 113 – 124p.

Зиновьева С.В., Буторина Н.Н., Удалова Ж.В., Хасанова О.С., Филимонова Л.В., Петросян В.Г., Пельгунов А.Н. 2015. Мировые коллекции паразитических червей. Известия РАН, Серия биологическая, № 6. С. 627–633.

Лаврова В.В., Матвеева Е.М., Зиновьева С.В. 2015. Экспрессия R-генов при генетической и индуцированной устойчивости картофеля к цистообразующей нематоде Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber, 1923) Behrens, 1975. Доклады академии наук, том 464. № 2. с 231–233.


Ghaderi, R., Karegar, A., Niknam G. & Subbotin, S.A. 2014. Phylogenetic relationships of Telotylenchidae Siddiqi, 1960 and Merliniidae Siddiqi, 1971 (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from Iran, as inferred from the analysis of the D2D3 expansion fragments of 28S rRNA gene sequences. Nematology 16: 863-877.

Chizhov, V.N., Pridannikov, M.V., Peneva, V. & Subbotin, S.A. 2014. Morphological and molecular characterisation of the Saratov population of the European dagger nematode, Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Nematoda: Dorylaimida), with notes on phylogeography of the species. Nematology 16: 847-862.

Subbotin, S.A., Chitambar, J.J., Chizhov, V.N., Stanley, J.D., Inserra, R.N., Doucet, M.E., McClure, M., Ye, W., Yeates, G.W., Mollov, D.S., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C., Vovlas, N., Van Den Berg, E. & Castillo, P. 2014. Molecular phylogeny, diagnostics, and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes of the genus Hemicycliophora (Nematoda: Hemicycliophoridae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 171: 475-506.

Van den Berg, E., Tiedt, L.R., Inserra, R., Stanley, J.D., Vovlas, N., Palomares-Rius, J.E, Castillo, P. & Subbotin, S.A. 2014. Morphological and molecular characterisation of some Hemicriconemoides species (Nematoda: Criconematidae) together with a phylogeny of the genus. Nematology 16: 519-553.

Van den Berg E., Tiedt L.R. & Subbotin S.A. 2014. Morphological and molecular characterisation of several Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922 (Tylenchida: Paratylenchidae) species from South Africa and USA, together with some taxonomic notes. Nematology 16: 323-358.

Khusainov R.V. 2014. Aphelenchoides eximus sp. N. (Aphelenchina: Aphelenchoididae) from the Central Part of Europen Russia// Internat. J. Nematology.  V 23, N1. P. 43-48

Zinovieva S.V. 2014. Co-adaptation mechanisms in plant-nematode systems. 2014. Паразитология. Т. 48. № 2. С. 110-130.

Удалова Ж.В., Зиновьева С.В. и др. 2014. Участие ингибиторов протеиназ в защите растений томатов от галловых нематод. Доклады академии наук. Т. 458, № 6, с. 17–22.


Обложка книги










Chitambar J.J. & Subbotin S.A. 2014. Systematics of the Sheath Nematodes of the Superfamily Hemicycliophoroidea. Nematology Monograps and Perspectives, Volume 10 (Series Editors: Hunt, D.J. & Perry, R.N.). Leiden, The Netherlands, Brill, 732 pp.


Обложка книги

Subbotin S.A., Mundo-Ocampo M. & Baldwin J.G. 2010. Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae). Nematology Monograps and Perspectives, Volume 8A (Series Editors: Hunt, D.J. & Perry, R.N.). Leiden, The Netherlands, Brill, 351 pp.


Обложка книги

Subbotin S.A., Mundo-Ocampo M. & Baldwin J.G. 2010. Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae). Nematology Monograps and Perspectives, Volume 8B (Series Editors: Hunt, D.J. & Perry, R.N.). Leiden, The Netherlands, Brill, 512 pp.


Обложка книги

Фитопаразитические нематоды России. 2012 Под редакцией. С.В. Зиновьевой, В.Н. Чижова. М.: Товарищество научных изданий КМК. с. – 119-231. ISBN 978-5-87317-775-2

Staff of the laboratory

Pridannikov Mikhail Viktorovich Head of the Laboratory of Phytoparasitology, Senior Researcher Candidate of Biological Sciences

Zinovieva Svetlana Vasilievna

 Chief Researcher PhD

Perevertin Kirill Alexandrovich

 Leading Researcher PhD

Chizhov Vladimir Nikolaevich

Senior Researcher Candidate of Biological

Subbotin Sergey Alexandrovich

 Senior Researcher Candidate of Biological

Udalova Zhanna Viktorovna

Senior Researcher Candidate of Biological

Butorina Natalia Nikolaevna

Senior Researcher Candidate of Biological

Tabolin Sergey Borisovich

Researcher Candidate of Biological

Kozyreva Natalia Ivanovna

Junior Researcher Candidate of Biological

Khusainov Renat Viktorovich

Lead Engineer  
Gennadieva Tatiana Mikhailovna Lead Engineer  

Kulinich Oleg Andreevich

Senior Researcher PhD